NCBT PSY 127 (Psychology)

Thursday, June 01, 2006

Assignments for next class are below the grade breakdown email. The assignemtns are due in class on June 6th.

Thursday, May 25, 2006

Make sure that you follow all the guidllines that we have discussed in class.

Point breakdown for presentations

Possible Points:
Doing the presetation 20
Reason for doing topic 10
Dress 5
Visual Aid 10
Handout 10
Content 15
Preparation 10
References 10
Time 10


TOTAL 100

Friday, May 19, 2006

8 June 2006 - Due in class

1. Choose 2 phobias on page 445

2. Find a description of these phobias on the internet. Be ready to share the information in class.

3. From the chart on page 452, choose a subtype from each disorder category (i.e. anxiety, somatoform, and dissaociative). You should have three things for this task.

4. On page 492 review the chart of psychological treatments. Research each approach in the internet and prepare to discuss each approach in a class discussion.

CHAPTER 13 - Treatment of Psychological Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Define psychotherapy. (p. 479)
2. Describe the common features of treatments. Compare and contrast psychiatrists, psychologists, and other types of therapists. Describe the approach of an eclectic therapist. (p. 480)
3. Describe the history, goals, and methods of psychoanalysis. Describe the differences between classical psychoanalysis and its modern variations. (pp. 480–482)
4. Describe the theoretical basis of the humanistic approach to therapy. List the four assumptions on which humanistic therapists operate. (p.482)
5. Describe client-centered (or person-centered) therapy. Define unconditional positive regard, empathy, reflection, and congruence and discuss the importance of each in client-centered therapy. Describe the assumptions, goals, and methods of Gestalt therapy. (pp. 482–484)
6. Define behavior therapy. Describe its basic features and the assumptions on which it is based. Compare and contrast behavior therapy, behavior modification, and cognitive-behavior therapy. (pp. 484–485)
7. Define systematic desensitization, modeling, assertiveness training, positive reinforcement, token economy, extinction, flooding, aversive conditioning, and punishment. Give an example of each. Specify the type of learning (classical or operant conditioning) each method is based on. (pp. 485–488)
8. Describe the assumptions, goals, and methods of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), and Beck’s cognitive therapy. Describe cognitive restructuring and stress inoculation training. (pp. 489–490)
9. Define and discuss the benefits of group, family, and couples therapy. (pp. 490–491)
10. Explain why it is difficult to determine the overall effectiveness of psychotherapy. Discuss whether one approach to psychotherapy works best in treating disorders. (pp. 493-495)
11. Discuss the controversy surrounding the use of empirically supported therapies (ESTs). List the questions that a potential client must consider before choosing a therapist and treatment approach. (p. 496)
12. Discuss the importance of training psychotherapists to be sensitive to cultural factors in treatment. (pp. 498-499)
13. Describe the rules governing therapists and the rights held by clients in therapeutic relationships. (pp. 499-500)
14. Describe the historical and present use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (p. 500)
15. Define neuroleptic, antidepressant, lithium, and anxiolytic, and specify which disorders are treated by each drug. Explain the side effects of these drugs. (pp. 501–502)
16. Discuss the research comparing the effectiveness of drugs with that of psychotherapy in the treatment of psychological disorders. Discuss the effectiveness of the joint use of drugs and psychotherapy. (pp. 503-504)
17. Describe the ways in which psychoactive drugs affect neurotransmitters and their receptors. Define reuptake. (pp. 505-506)
18. Define community psychology. Describe the ways in which community psychologists attempt to treat and prevent mental illness. (p. 506)

CHAPTER 12 - Psychological Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Define psychopathology. Discuss the prevalence of mental disorder in the United States. (p. 433)
2. Describe the statistical infrequency, norm violation, and personal suffering criteria for abnormality, and discuss the limitations of each criterion. Describe the practical approach and impaired functioning. (p. 434)
3. Discuss how each of the following explains psychological disorders: neurobiological model, psychological model, and sociocultural model. Explain how each of these models fits into the biopsychosocial model of mental disorder. (pp. 436–438)
4. Describe and give an example illustrating the diathesis-stress approach to mental disorder. (p. 439)
5. Discuss the purposes of diagnosis. Describe the contents of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). List the five axes of the DSM-IV used in diagnosis. (pp. 440-442)
6. Discuss the reliability and validity of diagnostic labels. Describe the problems associated with diagnosis. Discuss the research examining diagnostic biases. (pp. 442-444)
7. Define anxiety disorder. Specify what disorders are classified as anxiety disorders. (p. 444)
8. Define phobia. Describe the symptoms of specific phobia, social phobia, and agoraphobia. (p. 444–446)
9. Describe the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Explain the difference between obsessions and compulsions. (p. 446)
10. Discuss the biological and psychological factors that may contribute to anxiety disorders. (pp. 447-448)
11. Discuss the learning principles that may be involved in the acquisition and maintenance of phobias. Discuss how humans are biologically prepared to learn certain phobias. (p. 448)
12. Define somatoform disorder. Describe the symptoms of conversion disorder, hypochondriasis, somatization disorder, and pain disorder. (pp. 449–450)
13. Discuss the various theoretical explanations of how somatoform disorders develop. (p. 450)
14. Define dissociative disorder. Compare and contrast dissociative fugue and dissociative amnesia. Describe the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder. (p. 451)
15. Discuss the various theoretical explanations of how dissociative disorders develop. (pp. 451-452)
16. Define mood disorder. Describe the symptoms of major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder, mania, and cyclothymic disorder. Define delusions. (p. 453)
17. Describe the relationship between depression and suicide. List the factors that may predict suicide. (pp. 453-455)
18. Discuss the biological, psychological, and social factors that may contribute to the development of mood disorders. (pp. 455-458)
19. Define schizophrenia. Describe the disorganized thought, language, and behavior associated with schizophrenia. Give examples of neologisms, loose associations, and word salad. (p. 459)
20. Describe the following delusions: ideas of reference, delusions of grandeur, thought broadcasting, thought blocking, thought withdrawal, and thought insertions. Define hallucinations. (p. 460)
21. Describe the symptoms of the following DSM-IV categories of schizophrenia: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual. Discuss alternative ways of categorizing schizophrenic symptoms. (pp. 460-461)
22. Discuss the biological, neurodevelopmental, and psychological and sociocultural factors that may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. Describe the vulnerability theory of schizophrenia. (pp. 460-462)
23. Define personality disorder and briefly describe the symptoms of the schizotypal, avoidant, and narcissistic personality disorders. (p. 463)
24. Discuss the possible causes of antisocial personality disorder. Be sure to address the research on the link between childhood abuse and antisocial personality disorder. (p. 465)
25. Discuss the following categories of childhood disorders: externalizing, internalizing, and pervasive developmental. Describe the symptoms of conduct disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and autistic spectrum disorders. (pp. 467-468)
26. Define substance-related disorder, addiction, substance abuse, and alcoholism. (pp. 468–469)
27. Describe the problems associated with, and the theoretical explanations for, dependence on alcohol, heroin, and cocaine. (pp. 469-470)
28. Discuss the laws designed to protect the rights of people with severe psychological disorders who are accused of a crime. (p. 471)

Make sure if you need to email me that you use the address at the bottom of this site. If you use any other address it will be invalid.

See you in class

Friday, May 12, 2006

25 May 2006 - This was for last week but will be due on the 25th.

1. Review chapter 6, Use the student Psychology CD-ROM and consult your textbook for any terms you need to understand in greater detail.

2. Find some memory help devises or mnemonic devices on the internet. Use the information in chapter 6 to help with this research. Go to BCCC for some examples (you cannot use any of the ones on this site for your assignment).

3. Go to Problem Solving and read the “suggested basic steps section” and read “Basic Guidelines to Problem Solving and Decision Making.” Then go to the “tips” section and read “Creative Problem-Solving.” Be ready to explain or comment on these things.

18 May 2006

1. Remember the quiz covers chapter 7.

2. Be ready to discuss #5 from 27 April 2006 (5. Choose five terms from the key Terms on page 194 and be prepared to explain these in class. You may choose any terms, but one of the terms must be one of the types of conditioning (classical, operant, vicarious, or any of the other types of conditioning listed for this chapter. You may have notes form which to refer, but be ready to answer questions about each thing you have prepared).

3. Bring all the assignments that deal with the terms on page 278. You should have a total of 7 terms.

4. Bring the results of your IQ tests from 5 May 2006.

5. Bring your Psychology CD-ROM for class work.

6. Go to une.edu. Choose three of the problem solving strategies to learn and be ready to present in class. You will only have to do a brief explanation of these strategies.

7. Be ready to present a complete research update, which includes sources you have found, what you have learned and how your presentation is going.

CHAPTER 7: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Describe the functions that form a circle of thought. (pp.235-236)
2. Define information-processing system and thinking. Discuss the role of attention and memory in each stage of the information-processing model. (p. 237)
3. Define concept. Describe the differences between formal and natural concepts, and give examples of each. Define and give an example of a prototype. (p. 237–238)
4. Define and give examples of propositions, schemas, scripts, and mental models. Describe the role of each in the thinking process. (p. 238–239)
5. Define and give examples of images and cognitive maps. (p. 240)
6. Define formal reasoning, algorithms, and rules of logic. Discuss the causes of errors in logical reasoning. (p. 240–241)
7. Define informal reasoning and heuristic. Describe and give examples of the anchoring, representativeness, and availability heuristics. (p. 242–243)
8. Describe the following problem-solving strategies: incubation, means-end analysis, working backward, and analogies. (pp. 244-245)
9. Describe how comparative case studies can be used to identify the strategies employed by successful problem solvers. (pp. 246)
10. Describe and give examples of the following obstacles to problem solving: multiple hypotheses, mental sets, functional fixedness, confirmation bias, and ignoring negative evidence. (p. 247–248)
11. Define artificial intelligence. Discuss the limitations of symbolic reasoning and the movement toward neural network approaches in artificial intelligence systems. (p. 249–250)
12. Define creativity. Discuss the cognitive and personality characteristics necessary for creative thinking. Define divergent and convergent thinking, and give examples of each. (p. 251–252)
13. Define utility and expected value, and explain the role of each in the decision-making process. (p. 253)
14. Explain how our decision-making abilities are influenced by biases and flaws in our perceptions of gains, losses, and probabilities. Be sure to discuss loss aversion and the gambler’s fallacy. (pp. 252-254)
15. Outline the discussion pattern typically found in groups trying to make a decision. Define group polarization and discuss the mechanisms that appear to underlie the phenomenon. Discuss the factors that influence the effectiveness of group decision making. (p. 254–255)
16. List the two basic elements of language. Define grammar. (p. 255)
17. Describe language development in children. Define babblings and telegraphic speech. (p. 257)
18. Discuss the roles of conditioning, imitation, and biology in language development. (pp. 257-258)
19. Describe the impact of a bilingual environment on the development of language abilities. (p. 259)
20. Define intelligence. (p. 260)
21. Discuss the history of intelligence test construction. Explain the scoring methods used in the Binet and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests. (p. 260)
22. Discuss the use and abuse of intelligence testing in the United States in the early 1900s. (pp. 260-261)
23. Describe Wechsler’s intelligence test. Explain why it is different from tests that were used previously. Define verbal and performance scales. (p. 262)
24. Explain how intelligence quotients (or IQ scores) are calculated today. (p. 263)
25. Define test. Describe the advantages of tests over other evaluation methods. Define and describe the usefulness of norms. (p. 263)
26. Define reliability and validity. Describe how correlation coefficients are used to evaluate the reliability and validity of tests. (p. 263–264)
27. Discuss the research evaluating the reliability and validity of IQ tests. (pp. 264-265)
28. Discuss how twin and adoption studies are used to explore the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on IQ scores. (pp. 265-266)
29. Explain why a group intelligence score tells you nothing about the intelligence of a given individual within the group. Discuss the variables that affect group intelligence scores. (pp. 266-267)
30. Discuss the evidence for and against the argument that IQ tests are culturally biased. Discuss the effectiveness of culture-fair tests. (pp. 268-269)
31. Explain Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. List the nine types of intelligences he proposed. Describe emotional intelligence. (p. 270–271)
32. Describe the triarchic theory of intelligence. Give examples of analytic, creative, and practical intelligence. (p. 271)
33. Describe the relationship between giftedness and success in our society. Define mental retardation and familial retardation. Discuss the causes of, and the characteristics associated with, mental retardation. (p. 273–274)

Friday, May 05, 2006

11 May 2006 – For Class – Will be explained by the instructor

1. Choose five words other than the two previously chosen. Look up five of the term on page 278 in your textbook. Read about them and then look on the internet for articles about the five words you picked. bring these to class for discussion.

11 May 2006

1. Remember the quiz covers chapter 5.

2. Look up two of the term on page 278 in your textbook. Read about them and then look on the internet for articles about the two words you picked. bring these to class for discussion.

CHAPTER 7; Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Describe the functions that form a circle of thought. (pp.235-236)
2. Define information-processing system and thinking. Discuss the role of attention and memory in each stage of the information-processing model. (p. 237)
3. Define concept. Describe the differences between formal and natural concepts, and give examples of each. Define and give an example of a prototype. (p. 237–238)
4. Define and give examples of propositions, schemas, scripts, and mental models. Describe the role of each in the thinking process. (p. 238–239)
5. Define and give examples of images and cognitive maps. (p. 240)
6. Define formal reasoning, algorithms, and rules of logic. Discuss the causes of errors in logical reasoning. (p. 240–241)
7. Define informal reasoning and heuristic. Describe and give examples of the anchoring, representativeness, and availability heuristics. (p. 242–243)
8. Describe the following problem-solving strategies: incubation, means-end analysis, working backward, and analogies. (pp. 244-245)
9. Describe how comparative case studies can be used to identify the strategies employed by successful problem solvers. (pp. 246)
10. Describe and give examples of the following obstacles to problem solving: multiple hypotheses, mental sets, functional fixedness, confirmation bias, and ignoring negative evidence. (p. 247–248)
11. Define artificial intelligence. Discuss the limitations of symbolic reasoning and the movement toward neural network approaches in artificial intelligence systems. (p. 249–250)
12. Define creativity. Discuss the cognitive and personality characteristics necessary for creative thinking. Define divergent and convergent thinking, and give examples of each. (p. 251–252)
13. Define utility and expected value, and explain the role of each in the decision-making process. (p. 253)
14. Explain how our decision-making abilities are influenced by biases and flaws in our perceptions of gains, losses, and probabilities. Be sure to discuss loss aversion and the gambler’s fallacy. (pp. 252-254)
15. Outline the discussion pattern typically found in groups trying to make a decision. Define group polarization and discuss the mechanisms that appear to underlie the phenomenon. Discuss the factors that influence the effectiveness of group decision making. (p. 254–255)
16. List the two basic elements of language. Define grammar. (p. 255)
17. Describe language development in children. Define babblings and telegraphic speech. (p. 257)
18. Discuss the roles of conditioning, imitation, and biology in language development. (pp. 257-258)
19. Describe the impact of a bilingual environment on the development of language abilities. (p. 259)
20. Define intelligence. (p. 260)
21. Discuss the history of intelligence test construction. Explain the scoring methods used in the Binet and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests. (p. 260)
22. Discuss the use and abuse of intelligence testing in the United States in the early 1900s. (pp. 260-261)
23. Describe Wechsler’s intelligence test. Explain why it is different from tests that were used previously. Define verbal and performance scales. (p. 262)
24. Explain how intelligence quotients (or IQ scores) are calculated today. (p. 263)
25. Define test. Describe the advantages of tests over other evaluation methods. Define and describe the usefulness of norms. (p. 263)
26. Define reliability and validity. Describe how correlation coefficients are used to evaluate the reliability and validity of tests. (p. 263–264)
27. Discuss the research evaluating the reliability and validity of IQ tests. (pp. 264-265)
28. Discuss how twin and adoption studies are used to explore the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on IQ scores. (pp. 265-266)
29. Explain why a group intelligence score tells you nothing about the intelligence of a given individual within the group. Discuss the variables that affect group intelligence scores. (pp. 266-267)
30. Discuss the evidence for and against the argument that IQ tests are culturally biased. Discuss the effectiveness of culture-fair tests. (pp. 268-269)
31. Explain Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. List the nine types of intelligences he proposed. Describe emotional intelligence. (p. 270–271)
32. Describe the triarchic theory of intelligence. Give examples of analytic, creative, and practical intelligence. (p. 271)33. Describe the relationship between giftedness and success in our society. Define mental retardation and familial retardation. Discuss the causes of, and the characteristics associated with, mental retardation. (p. 273–274)

Friday, April 21, 2006

5 May 2006 – For Class – Will be explained by the instructor

1. Here are three web sites that have different types of tests. Take at least two test from any of the sites and record how you did (either print a report of write your score).

http://www.iqtest.com/

http://www.2h.com/index.html

http://www.intelligencetest.com/

2. Find an article on the internet on the topic of language development. S=Does it agree with your textbook? Where does the article agree and where does it disagree?

NO CLASS ON APRIL 27, 2006
Do the assignments listed below

NO CLASS ON APRIL 27, 2006
Do the assignments listed below


NO CLASS ON APRIL 27, 2006
Do the assignments listed below

NO CLASS ON APRIL 27, 2006
Do the assignments listed below

NO CLASS ON APRIL 27, 2006
Do the assignments listed below

27 April 2006
These assignments are to be completed
and
ready to turn in on May 5, 2006

1. I will not be in class this week. You should use the time to complete the following assignments and work on your research paper.

2. Complete Quiz 2 (located below) over chapters 3 and 4. This quiz will be turned in the first thing on May 5th. This quiz may be taken open book and open note.

3. Using the student CD-ROM that came with your textbook, look at chapter 5 and prepare a brief explanation of Pavlov’s experiment (Topic 1). You may also use your textbook. This description must be typed and ready to turn in on May 5th.

4. Be ready to describe what research you have completed on your project/paper. You must have at least three sources that you intend to use in your paper.

5. Choose five terms from the key Terms on page 194 and be prepared to explain these in class. You may choose any terms, but one of the terms must be one of the types of conditioning (classical, operant, vicarious, or any of the other types of conditioning listed for this chapter. You may have notes form which to refer, but be ready to answer questions about each thing you have prepared.

6. Search the internet for articles that describe one of the type of conditioning listed on page 194. This must be a type of conditioning other than what you chose to look up in 35 of this list. Find the article and bring it to class.

7. The quiz on May 5th will cover chapter 5 on Learning. It will have 25 multiple choice questions.

8. On the student CD-ROM: Chapter 5 has five topics. Choose two of these and read them in preparation for the quiz on May 5th.

9. Be ready to share your chosen sub fields of Psychology during class.

10. There is no number ten. Have a great week. If you have any questions, call me at home 290-6800 or email me.

Chapter 5 Review Sheet (for your information, not to be turned in):
1. Define learning. (p. 162)
2. Define classical conditioning. Give an example that illustrates the process of classical conditioning, identifying the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response in your example. (pp. 162–164)
3. Describe and give examples of the processes of extinction, reconditioning, and spontaneous recovery. (p. 164)
4. Define and give examples of stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination. (p. 165)
5. Describe the role that timing, predictability, signal strength, and attention play in the development of conditioned responses. Define and give an example of second-order conditioning. (p. 166)
6. Define and give examples of biopreparedness. Explain why conditioned taste aversion is a special case of classical conditioning. (p. 167)
7. Discuss the role of classical conditioning in the development and treatment of phobias and in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. (pp.168-169)
8. Discuss the role of habituation in Solomon’s opponent-process theory. Explain how opponent-process theory applies to drug addiction. (p. 169)
9. Describe operant conditioning and explain how it differs from classical conditioning. (p. 170)
10. Define and give examples of operants, reinforcers, positive reinforcement, and negative reinforcement. (p. 171)
11. Define and give examples of escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning. (p. 171–172)
12. Define discriminative stimuli. Explain how the concepts of stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization complement each other. (p. 172)
13. Define and give an example of shaping. (p. 173)
14. Compare and contrast primary and secondary reinforcers. Discuss how the timing and size of a reinforcer influences its effectiveness. (p. 174)
15. Explain the difference between continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. Compare and contrast fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval schedules. Describe how describe how the various schedules affect response patterns. Describe the partial reinforcement extinction effect. (pp. 175–177)
16. Define punishment and describe its role in operant conditioning. Explain how punishment differs from negative reinforcement. Discuss the disadvantages of and guidelines for using punishment. (pp. 177–178)
17. Discuss how operant conditioning can be used to treat problematic behavior. (p.180)
18. Define and give an example of learned helplessness. Discuss the experiments investigating learned helplessness. (pp. 181–182)
19. Define and give examples of latent learning and cognitive maps. (p. 183)
20. Define insight. Discuss how insight differs from classical and operant conditioning. (pp. 184–185)
21. Define observational learning and discuss the research on vicarious conditioning. (pp. 185–186)
22. Describe the research examining the effects of television violence on behavior. State what conclusions are most reasonable based on the available evidence. (pp.187-189)
23. Describe the potential causes of cultural differences in scholastic achievement. (pp.189-190)
24. Define and give examples of active learning. (p. 190)25. Describe the roles of practice and feedback in skill learning. (p. 191)

Quiz 2 (Chapters 3-4) - Due on May 5, 2006
(may be taken open book and open note)
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. Allison is explaining the difference between two psychological concepts: “When you hear a noise, that is _________; when you realize that the noise is a clock ticking, that is ________.”
a. sensation; perception
b. perception; sensation
c. coding; transduction
d. transduction; coding

2. Which of the following is the best example of a sensation?
a. You see a man with a gun threatening a store clerk.
b. You see bright light.
c. You see that your grandmother is wearing a plaid sweater.
d. You see orange peelings in a bowl.

3. Sensation consists of ______________ and perception consists of ______________.
a. responding to changes in stimuli; adapting to a nonchanging stimulus
b. adapting to a nonchanging stimulus; responding to changes in stimuli
c. collecting raw information about the environment; interpreting environmental information
d. interpreting environmental information; collecting raw information about the environment

4. Accessory structures are responsible for
a. modifying physical energy from the outside world.
b. converting physical energy into neural activity.
c. carrying information from receptors to the brain.
d. interpreting physical energy in a meaningful way.

5. When you listen to your favorite CD, the speakers create vibrations in the air. These vibrations are mechanical energy that must be converted into a neural response so that your brain can understand it, and you can perceive the music. The conversion process is known as
a. transmission.
b. transduction.
c. translation.
d. coding.

6. Stimulus information is processed in which order during sensation?
a. Operation of accessory structures, transfer to the brain, transduction
b. Operation of accessory structures, transduction, transfer to the brain
c. Transduction, operation of accessory structures, transfer to the brain
d. Transduction, transfer to the brain, operation of accessory structures

7. The structures responsible for the process of transduction are known as
a. accessory structures.
b. sensory nerves.
c. receptors.
d. feature detectors.

8. Cartman needed to remember to pick up some Cheesy Poofs at the grocery store, so he tied a string around his finger to help him remember. Unfortunately, by the time he arrived at the store, he no longer noticed the string around his finger. This was most likely due to
a. perceptual constancy.
b. accommodation.
c. transduction.
d. adaptation.

9. John has a fish tank that continuously bubbles, spurts, hums, and makes other annoying sounds. As time goes by, John notices the noise less and less. This is an example of
a. association.
b. modification.
c. adaptation.
d. transduction.
10. Martha takes a study break and decides to eat an apple. What kind of sensory information about the apple is likely to reach Martha’s cerebral cortex without first going through the thalamus?
a. Color
b. Smell
c. Taste
d. Texture

11. The process of translating the physical properties of a stimulus into a pattern of neural activity that allows us to identify those properties is known as
a. coding.
b. reception.
c. perception.
d. transduction.

12. A participant in an experiment is instructed to raise her hand each time that she hears a tone through her headphones. The experiment concludes when the researcher finds the volume level at which the participant detects the tone 50 percent of the time. In this experiment, the researcher has found the participant’s
a. absolute threshold.
b. internal noise.
c. difference threshold.
d. response criterion.

13. Sherlock Holmes and his trusty assistant, Watson, are snooping around a dark, deserted house in London. Watson suddenly screams, “Holmes! I thought I just saw a flicker of light!”
Holmes turns to him and says, “No, my dear boy. You must have been interpreting a random firing of sensory neurons as a stimulus.” Holmes was describing
a. absolute threshold.
b. just-noticeable difference.
c. internal noise.
d. Weber’s law.

14. Roy is a security guard at a department store. Roy’s boss just told him that he would lose his job if he did not start catching more shoplifters. Roy is now more likely to falsely accuse
shoppers of shoplifting. In this example, Roy’s boss has influenced Roy’s
a. response criterion.
b. absolute threshold.
c. internal noise.
d. sensitivity.

15. Jackie is expecting a phone call. She mistakenly believes she hears the phone ringing two times even though it does not actually ring. The next evening, when Jackie is not expecting any calls, she does not experience this phenomenon. Jackie’s experience is predicted by
a. Weber’s law.
b. signal-detection theory.
c. the perceptual constancy principle.
d. bottom-up processing.

16. In signal-detection theory, a person’s sensitivity is influenced by all of the following factors except
a. internal noise.
b. stimulus intensity
c. motivation.
d. sensory system limitations.

17. According to signal-detection theory, a proofreader who is able to detect every single error in a manuscript must have _________ sensitivity and/or a _________ response criterion.
a. low; low
b. low; high
c. high; low
d. high; high

18. You are studying in a room lit by 25 watts of light. Your roommate yells at you to turn up the light, so you rotate the dimmer switch once and your roommate thanks you. Later that
evening the light is at 90 watts and your roommate tells you to turn it up again. You again rotate the dimmer switch once but your roommate can’t tell that the light has increased. This
example best illustrates
a. absolute threshold.
b. Weber’s law.
c. internal noise.
d. response bias.

19. Ken and Marc are each carrying a pile of bricks. A friend adds one brick to the pile that Ken is carrying and one brick to the pile that Marc is carrying. After this, Ken says, “Gee, my pile doesn’t feel any heavier,” while Marc says, “My pile seems heavier now.” Using Weber’s law allows us to conclude that
a. Ken cannot experience a just-noticeable difference.
b. Ken is more sensitive to stimulus differences.
c. Ken has more bricks to start with than Marc does.
d. Marc has more bricks to start with than Ken does.

20. Riley notices that his soup tastes a little bland, so he decides to add some salt. The point at which Riley can tell that his soup tastes saltier represents his
a. just-noticeable difference.
b. absolute threshold.
c. response criterion.
d. perceptual constancy.

21. Which of the following is best defined as an awareness of the outside world and one’s own mental activity?
a. Consciousness
b. Hypnosis
c. Lucid dreaming
d. Biofeedback

22. The definition of consciousness includes awareness of all of the following except
a. the outside world.
b. one’s own thoughts.
c. the brain’s regulation of autonomic nervous system activity.
d. one’s own feelings and perceptions.

23. Consciousness is best defined as the
a. state of being awake and alert.
b. possession of knowledge about the outside world.
c. awareness of the outside world and one’s own mental activities.
d. understanding of the structure and function of cognition.

24. Cathy is in a coma, Dana is daydreaming, Heather is hypnotized, and Alex is fully awake and alert. Each of these individuals is experiencing a different ______________ of consciousness.
a. state
b. division
c. level
d. dissociation

25. A person engaging in biofeedback training is attempting to become aware of ______________ processes.
a. preconscious
b. unconscious/subconscious
c. conscious
d. nonconscious



26. The mental processes responsible for regulating perspiration, digestion, and other autonomic nervous system activity occur at the __________ level of consciousness.
a. preconscious
b. unconscious
c. conscious
d. nonconscious

27. As Desmond puts on his glasses in the morning, he is keenly aware of the sensation of the frames touching his nose. However, as the day goes on and he gets absorbed in other activities, the sensation of his glasses resting on his nose fades from his awareness. At this point, the sensations of the glasses on Desmond’s nose are
a. conscious.
b. preconscious.
c. unconscious.
d. subconscious.

28. Nelson just realized that he forgot to pay last month’s telephone bill. Immediately prior to this realization, the information about last month’s telephone bill was in the ___________ level of Nelson’s awareness.
a. subconscious
b. unconscious
c. nonconscious
d. preconscious

29. Judy is an avid cyclist. She often likes to ride her bicycle to unwind after work. One evening, while reflecting on her day, she suddenly realizes that she has broken her normal leg rhythm. Perception of her leg movements has gone from the ______________ to the ______________ level.
a. nonconscious; preconscious
b. preconscious; conscious
c. unconscious; preconscious
d. unconscious; conscious

30. Just before reading this question, you were probably not thinking about your hair color, yet now you can quickly and easily bring that information to your direct awareness. Your knowledge of your hair color resides in your ______________ level of consciousness.
a. nonconscious
b. preconscious
c. subconscious
d. unconscious

I have forgotten to tell you that I will not be in class next week (April 27). Next week will be a research day. You should use the period to begin the research for your paper. Also, I will put some assignments on the web site to be turned in at the beginning of class on may 5th. These assignments will be used to give you credit for the lost class time. There will be some make up time futher down the road.

I apologize for not telling you thing Thursday. If there are any questions, please call me at home 290-6800 or email me.

Have a great week,

Mr Elliott

Tuesday, April 18, 2006

For Class - Will be explained later:

1. Go to this AMA site and investigate the nervous system. Pick a part of the nervous system and be ready to describe it based on this site's information.

2. Go to St Luke's eye site and use the blue words at the right of the page to learn about the eye. Be ready to describe three parts of the eye (any three you choose).

3. Pages 147-154 have different types of drugs listed. Pick five of these drugs and research it on the web. Two of your choices must be alcohol and marijuana.

Just a few things for Thursday:
1. Remember the quiz

2. Bring your research topics. I have not heard from anyone about what they want to research.

3. Go to the Interactive Body and learn about the nervous system. Be ready to tell what you learned.

CHAPTER 3
Sensation and Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Define sense, sensation, and perception. Explain the differences between sensation and perception. (p. 80)
2. Define accessory structure, transduction, receptor, and coding. Define and give an example of adaptation. (pp. 80-81)
3. Define psychophysics and absolute threshold. Explain the influence of internal noise and response criterion on perception. (pp. 82–83)
4. Describe signal-detection theory. Explain how sensitivity and response criterion affect signal detection. (p. 83)
5. Describe Weber’s Law. Explain the concept of just-noticeable difference (JND). (p. 83)
6. Define wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. Define visible light and explain how light intensity and light wavelength are related to what you sense. (pp. 83–85 )
7. Define and describe the accessory structures of the eye, including the cornea, pupil, iris, and lens. Define retina and explain how accommodation affects the image on the retina. (p. 85)
8. Define photoreceptor. Compare and contrast rods and cones. Describe the role of photoreceptors in the processes of transduction and dark adaptation. Define and describe the fovea. (pp. 86-87)
9. Describe the path that visual information follows on its way to the brain. Explain the relationship between the optic nerve and the blind spot. Define feature detectors. (p. 87)
10. Define hue, saturation, and brightness. (p. 88)
11. Describe the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision. Discuss the phenomena each theory explains. Describe the physical problem that causes colorblindness. (pp. 89–91)
12. Define sound. Describe the psychological characteristics of sound, including loudness, pitch, and timbre. Discuss the relationships that exist between pitch and frequency, and amplitude and loudness. (pp. 91–93)
13. Name and describe the accessory structures of the ear. Describe the roles of the cochlea, basilar membrane, hair cells, and auditory nerve in the process of auditory transduction. Compare and contrast conduction deafness and nerve deafness. (pp. 93–94)
14. Describe how information is relayed to the primary auditory cortex. Discuss the processing that occurs within the auditory cortex. Explain how place theory and volley theory account for frequency coding. (p. 94)
15. Describe the sense of smell and sense of taste. Describe their associations with flavor, emotion, and food preferences. (p. 94–96)
16. Describe the accessory structures and the process of transduction for the sense of smell. Discuss the path that olfactory information follows to the brain. Define pheromones and discuss their impact on human behavior. Define papillae. (p. 98)
17. Define somatic sense. Describe the transduction and coding processes of the skin senses. Describe the pathways that carry sensory information from the skin to the spinal cord and brain. (p. 98)
18. Describe the gate-control theory of pain sensation. Define analgesia. Describe the body’s natural analgesic systems. (p. 101)
19. Describe the evidence concerning acupuncture and the conclusions that are most reasonable about the treatment. (pp.101-102)
20. Define proprioception and kinesthesia. Name the sources of kinesthetic information. Describe the types of information that the vestibular sense provides. Discuss the structures and neural connections associated with the vestibular sense. (p. 103)
21. Define and give and example of figure and ground. Describe and give examples of each of the following grouping principles: proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, texture, simplicity, common fate, synchrony, common region, and connectedness. (p. 106)
22. Define depth perception. Describe the stimulus cues that influence depth perception, including relative size, height in the visual field, interposition, linear perspective, reduced clarity, light and shadow, and textural gradient. (p. 107)
23. Describe the depth cues provided by the visual system, including accommodation, convergence, and binocular disparity. (p. 108)
24. Define and give an example of looming. Discuss the effects of head, eye, and body movement on motion perception. Describe stroboscopic motion. (pp. 109–110)
25. Define perceptual constancy. Give examples of size, shape, and brightness constancy. (p. 111)
26. Describe the impact of culture and experience on perception. (pp.113-114)
27. Compare and contrast bottom-up processing and top-down processing. Discuss how schemas, expectancy, and motivation can influence top-down processing. Describe how top-down and bottom-up processing work together. (p. 114)
28. Describe an infant’s perceptual abilities and the methods used to study them. (pp.117-118)29. Define attention. Give examples of overt and covert orienting. Explain parallel processing. Describe factors that affect the ability to direct or divide attention. Describe the research using reaction time and PETs. (p. 118)

CHAPTER 4
Consciousness
1. Define consciousness. (p. 131)
2. Define state of consciousness. Describe and give examples of the conscious, nonconscious, preconscious, and unconscious (or subconscious) levels of conscious awareness. (p. 131)
3. Describe blindsight, priming, and the mere-exposure effect. (pp.131-132)
4. Define subliminal perception. Discuss the studies examining the effects of subliminal messages on thought and behavior. (p. 132–135)
5. Define and give examples of altered states of consciousness. (p. 135)
6. Describe the brain activity and bodily changes associated with the various stages of sleep, including those of slow-wave and REM sleep. (p. 137)
7. Describe a typical night’s sleep. Discuss the ways in which sleep changes over the course of the life span. (pp.137-138)
8. Discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatment of insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, night terrors, and REM behavior disorder. Specify the sleep stages in which sleepwalking, nightmares, night terrors, and REM behavior disorder occur. (pp. 138–140)
9. Define circadian rhythm and jet lag. Discuss the brain’s role in regulating sleep patterns. (p. 140)
10. Discuss the effects of sleep deprivation. Describe the manner in which the body compensates for lost REM and non-REM sleep. Discuss the various hypotheses regarding the need for the two types of sleep. (pp.141-142)
11. Define dreams and lucid dreaming. Discuss the research findings on dreams. (p. 142)
12. Discuss the various theories that explain why people dream, including wish fulfillment and activation-synthesis theory. (p.142-143)
13. Define hypnosis and describe the process of becoming hypnotized. (p. 143)
14. Define hypnotic susceptibility, age regression, posthypnotic suggestions, and posthypnotic amnesia. Describe the changes people experience during hypnosis. (p. 143–146)
15. Compare and contrast the role, state, and dissociation theories of hypnosis. (pp.144-145)
16. Discuss the applications and limitations of hypnosis. (pp.145-146)
17. Discuss the common characteristics of mediation techniques and describe the effects of meditation. (p.146)
18. Define psychoactive drugs and psychopharmacology. Explain the function of the blood-brain barrier and discuss how agonist, antagonist, and other types of drugs work. (pp. 146–147)
19. Define substance abuse. Distinguish between psychological dependence and physical dependence, or addiction. Define withdrawal syndrome and tolerance. (p. 148)
20. Discuss how expectations can influence the effects of drugs. (pp.148-149)
21. Define depressant. Describe the effects of alcohol, barbiturates, and GHB on mental functioning, behavior, and the nervous system. (p. 148).
22. Define stimulant. Describe the effects of amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, and MDMA on mental functioning, behavior, and the nervous system. (p. 151)
23. Define opiates. Describe the effects of opium, morphine, and heroin on mental functioning, behavior, and the nervous system. (p. 152)
24. Define hallucinogens. Describe the effects of LSD, marijuana, and ketamine on mental functioning, behavior, and the nervous system. (p. 152)